May 11, 2017

How life was begun? – Part II

Stage 2

For macromolecular photocatalytic films grown in the raw water reservoirs, UV light did not damaging factor and a prerequisite for a daily self-assembly, a source of renewal of their metastable intermolecular bonds. When these films are arranged in multiple layers, only the upper absorb ultraviolet light and the lower, shaded experienced energy shortages and broken. For their sustainability required the transfer of energy from the upper layers.

All living cells are the carriers of energy molecules macroergs: ATP, GTP, etc. They are produced, or oxidative phosphorylation, using the chemical energy of various organic compounds, or phosphorylation, as organic phosphates are synthesized by the energy of visible light. Both the first and the second method is not possible without enzymes produced by the matrix.


Since the dawn of abiogenesis is not dominated by visible light, ultraviolet light and more effective, phosphorylation could do without the original enzymes. We assumed that it began to carry out the familiar photocatalytic systems when their cohesive substrate components (polypeptides) acquired an affinity with the available aquatic ADP molecules (or GDP, and others.). As a result, these molecules as substrates held zone inductively resonance energy transfer, wherein the UV light energy, absorbed and transformed into chemical energy annular chain RNA directed for connection thereto of inorganic phosphate, i.e. macroergs the formation of ATP and others. With the introduction of UV-dependent phosphorylation, began macroergs diffusion from the upper to the lower. She provided them with chemical energy and opened up the prospect of further complications.

Stable molecular complexes responsible for the phosphorylation were located in the upper nucleoprotein films to absorb UV light. They supplied the aquatic environment in the form of chemical energy-macroergs. However, the stability of molecular complexes of the lower level, deprived of inflow UV light, depended not only on the supply of energy, but also on the effective spending. For a long time to preserve the metastable regard their macromolecular components, these complexes have been coming to spend energy to direct it to certain chemical processes. To perform this work they needed structural modernization. We hypothesized that the lower level of nucleoprotein complexes acquired resistance, when their structure included in the first ATP-specific polypeptides that bind and hold molecular macroergs, and secondly, poly-NC with the more complicated secondary structure responsible for the transfer of chemical energy to new active centers.

Nevertheless, at this stage of abiogenesis is so large-scale modernization of macromolecular structures hindered the limit of construction materials, particularly polypeptides. In living cells, the polypeptides are synthesized by a matrix involving ribosomes, mRNA, tRNA, which structure, along with the enzymes, the RNA chain type include “cloverleaf” having several annular regions of secondary structure. The energy source is ATP. Protocells did not have the enzymes, so the matrix synthesis was impossible. However, they could go non-matrix polymerization of amino acids of the polypeptides. The fact that the upper layers of already produced energy carriers: ATP, etc., and a lower, protected from ultraviolet radiation, the different RNA appeared spontaneously with the secondary structure of the “cloverleaf”. Such RNA included in nucleoprotein complexes containing several polypeptide components, substrate-like ATP, and various amino acids were present in the aqueous medium. These systems use energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to a compound of amino acids by peptide bonds. Because of carried out non-matrix synthesis of novel polypeptides.

Appearance of non-matrix synthesis of polypeptides give multilayer structures of macromolecular-term growth at the expense of self-polypeptide raw material. Note that the sequence of amino acids in the synthesized polypeptides was not decisive. After all of them are not ready formed enzymes with desired properties. Its substrate specificity they acquired due to restructuring, acting as energy acceptors inductive resonance shifts.

At this stage, the shading of the lower layers of the interference has become a compulsory condition for the stability of multilayer macromolecular structures. They appeared independent power supply and specialization of the upper and lower catalyst complexes. Similar multilayer formation implementing hyphenation chemical energy, are essential components of all living cells.

Stage 3

As already mentioned, the lower growth protected from UV light required portions probiotic films with a complex RNA secondary structure of the “cloverleaf” which, unlike simple rings poly-NK were not formed in the UV absorption and triplet transfer, and formed spontaneously. Their deficiency in the ancient water bodies limited assembly of nucleoprotein complexes that can efficiently use energy-macroergs molecules. In such circumstances, the influx of ATP to the lower layers of the creative power could become a potential source of damage.

In living cells, the RNA chain with the specified structure are synthesized on a DNA matrix with the participation of many enzymes. This process is called “transcription.” It begins with the division of the two strands of the DNA helix. Then one strand serves as a template for the synthesis of RNA and the other playing a steam room (complimentary) DNA, allowing it to re-copy the information.

The third stage of the genesis of protocells already had a number of preconditions for the emergence of molecular transcription systems. Phosphorylation is carried out, ensure a flow of ATP, GTP and other macroergs, which are building blocks for the assembly of new RNA and DNA strands. The multilayer protocells appeared spontaneously fragments of double-stranded DNA helix – future matrix. However, as there was no enzymes required other factors governed by separating the two strands of DNA, RNA synthesis and reproduction mismatched DNA.

It is known that living cells in the DNA double helix separation initiating transcription occurs when changing the basicity (pH) of water environment. A DNA and RNA molecules are formed in the media with different values of pH. We hypothesized that protocells required for transcription of the differential pH in the neighboring areas of the internal aqueous medium, the so-called compartmentalization. Its cause was the transfer of protons through the catalytically active supramolecular film – protomembrane. Transcription started to increase in a pH protocell’s compartments and separation of the DNA double chain. A single strand of DNA, penetrating protomembrane, fell into the adjacent compartment with low basicity promotes RNA synthesis. It was used as transcription template. The second single DNA remained in the same compartment, and served as a template for DNA replication and assembly of the double helix, suitable for repeated transcriptions.

Through breeding gradually changed the composition of the DNA double chains protocell, improve the quality and quantity of RNA synthesized. Increased consistency of all catalytic processes. The fact that the compartmentalization of the internal environment is possible only with very small volumes of compartments indicates microscopic protocell third stage of abiogenesis.

Protomembrane, ensured the transfer of protons in abiotic conditions have been arranged much easier now existing biological membranes. Their detailed modeling or artificial synthesis could contribute to the deepening of scientific concepts of transmembrane ion transport, and the so-called proton pump. Interestingly, the cells of prokaryotic organisms (bacteria), as in protocell, circular DNA molecule, a so-called nucleoid is attached to the inside of the cell membrane. They also are small autonomous circular DNA molecules called plasmids.

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