All living beings can be classified using a hierarchical system, which is based on the category of genus and species.
Carl Linnaeus, a Swedish physiologist, was a professor of medicine at the University of Uppsala city. He was in charge of a large botanical garden, which is needed for university research. People sent him plants and seeds from around the world to grow in the botanical garden. It is thanks to the intensive study of this vast collection of plants, Linnaeus was able to solve the problem of systematization of all living things – like today it was named task taxonomy (taxonomy). We can say that he came up with categories for popular US quiz “Twenty Questions,” in which first of all ask whether the subject refers to animals, plants or minerals. The Linnaean system is really all refers to either an animal or a plant, or to inanimate nature (minerals).
To make it easier to understand the principle of systematization, imagine that you want to classify all the houses in the world. You can start with the fact that at home in Europe, for example, are more similar to each other than to the home in North America, so at first, the gross level of the classification must specify the continent where the building is located. At the level of each continent can go further, saying that the house in one country (e.g. France) are more like each other than at home in another country (e.g. Norway). Thus, the second level of the classification is the country. You can continue in the same way, considering the consistent level of the country, the city level and the level of the street. House on a particular street is that the final cell, where it is possible to place the desired object. So, every house will be fully classified, if the continent will be given to him, the country, city, street and house number.
Linnaeus observed that in this way can be classified living things according to their characteristics. Man, for example, is more like a squirrel than a rattlesnake, and more like a rattlesnake than a pine tree. Doing the same arguments as in the case of buildings, it is possible to build a classification system in which every living being will receive its own unique place.
That so did the followers of Carl Linnaeus. At the initial level, all living things are divided into five kingdoms – plants, animals, fungi and unicellular organisms two kingdoms (and non-nuclear DNA containing nucleus). Further, each kingdom is divided into types. For example, in the human nervous system includes the long spinal cord, resulting from the chord. This refers to the type of chord. Most of the animals with the spinal cord, it is located within the spine. This large group of chord is called a subtype of vertebrates. Man belongs to this subtype. The presence of the spine – the criterion by which vertebrates differ from invertebrates, i.e. without the vertebral spine (these include, for example, crabs).
The next category classification – class. The man is a representative of the class of mammals – warm-blooded animals with fur, live-bearing and feed their young with milk. This layer differentiates humans and animals such as reptiles and birds. The next category – detachment. We belong to the order of primates – the animals with binocular vision and his hands and feet adapted for grasping. The classification of the person as belonging to the primates makes us different from other mammals – such as for example dogs and giraffes.
The following two categories of classification – the family and the family. We belong to the family of hominids and the genus Homo. However, this distinction does not mean much to us, as other members of our family, and our family is no more (though they existed in the past). Most animals each genus contains several representatives. For example, the polar bear – this Ursus maritimis, and grizzly bear – Ursus horibilis. Both of these bears belong to the same genus (Ursus), but to different species – they do not interbreed.
The last category in the classification of Linnaeus – type – usually defined as a population of individuals that can interbreed with each other. Man belongs to the species sapience.
In the description of the animals taken to indicate the genus and species. Therefore, a person is classified as Homo sapiens (“Homo sapiens”). This does not mean that other categories of classification are not important – they are simply meant when talking about the kind and form. The main contribution of Linnaeus in science consists in the fact that he used and coined the so-called binary nomenclature, according to which the classification of each object designated by two Latin names – genus and species.
Classifying manner wildlife, Linnaeus system determines each body its own unique place in the world of living beings. However, success depends primarily on how well taxonomies provide important physical characteristics, and there could be false judgments and even mistakes – Linnaeus, for example, took the hippo to the order of rodents! Currently, with more systematization considered the genetic code of individual organisms, or the history of their evolution – family tree (this approach is called cladistics).